It was intentionally introduced from the Philippines into Mississippi as a possible forage in 1921. The fibre cogon grass is uniform, straight, and intact with a smooth surface. The best time for collecting thatching grass is in winter when it is bone dry. Cogon grass [Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.] Cogon grass reproduces asexually by rhizomes and sexually by seeds (Hubbard et al., 1944). Cogon grass is also nutritionally very poor, only 7% crude protein. In the United States, cogongrass extends as far north as South Carolina and west to Texas. The rhizomes are hard, scaly, and cream-colored with sharply pointed tips. The leaves appear light green, with older leaves becoming orange-brown in color. Cogon grass forms dense stands that displace native plant communities. 620 S. Meridian St. • Tallahassee, FL • (850) 488-4676 It has become established in the southeastern United States within the last fifty years, with Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida having extensive acreage of roadway and pasture infested with cogongrass. It is on the Federal list of noxious weeds and is designated as the world’s seventh worst weed. Extensive research has been conducted in Africa, southeast Asia and the United States for the control of cogongrass. Several studies having developed algorithms to detect cogongrass from other grasses in pa stures using hyperspectral data (Mathur et al., 2002 ; Huang et al., 2001 ) However, there has been no attempts to quantify cogon grass in longleaf pine savannas, which have a unique set of highly divers e species compared to savannas. One of the oldest and most successful methods is to deep plow or disk several times during the dry season to desiccate the rhizomes and exhaust the food reserves. Attempts at finding natural pests of cogongrass have met with limited success. The leaves originate directly from ground level and range from one to four feet in length. The aim of this work is to study the effect of cogon grass fibre (as shown in Figure 1) loading on the water absorption, swelling and water solubility properties of the thermoplastic starch. 1). Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. Paper. Pursuant to section 120.74, Florida Statutes, the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission has published its 2019 Agency Regulatory Plan. Thank you, Amanda – that’s very good to know. © 2020 University of Florida / IFAS / Center for Aquatic & Invasive Plants Google Privacy Policy | Today, only a few of the hundreds of herbicides tested are effective against cogongrass. Cultivation and herbicides have been the two control strategies used most often. Site Feedback. The grass has to be dry and must have lost all its seed when it is harvested for thatching. In areas with killing frosts, the leaves will turn light brown during winter months and present a substantial fire hazard. The leaf margins are finely serrated; contributing to the undesirable forage qualities of this grass. Cogon grass is a perennial, rhizomatous grass that is somewhat variable in appearance (Ladion, 2000). For newer patches, tillage can eliminate cogongrass from an area if continued during the course of a growing season. It is found on every continent, although it does not tolerate cool temperatures. Cogon grass grows 0.6–3 metres (2–10 feet) tall and has roots that can reach more than 1 metre (3.3 feet) long. Each leaf is 1/2 to 3/4 of an inch wide with a prominent, off-center, white mid-rib. Cogon grass can be tough to kill. Stems are solid, rather slender; nodes glabrous or bearded. To eliminate cogongrass, the rhizomes must be destroyed to avoid regrowth. Cogon grass is globally known as a pest and one of the top ten worst weeds in the world. Cogongrass is a perennial grass that varies greatly in appearance. What is Cogongrass? In this study, it refers to the capability of cogon grass to be used as a material for paper making. Luckily, several methods have been developed to rid properties of unwanted cogongrass infestations, including herbicides and desiccating the rhizomes through deep-plowing. If you have opted for a thatch roof, it is important to ensure that you are not building near to or under any trees. Flowers: Inflorescence a narrow, dense terminal panicle, white silky and plumelike, to 21 cm (8 in) long and 3.5 cm (1.5 in) wide. Cogon grass is an invasive weed and removing it is an important option to manage it invasiveness while at the same time providing abundant and inexpensive plant material for making biochar. Seed production predominately occurs in the spring, with long, fluffy-white seedheads. By E-mail Full Text Pdf The seed head is fuzzy, white, and plume-like (see images above). It affects the lives of vegetation around, wildlife habitat, recreation, site management, and even native plants that can only be found in specific places. It can be found at east and Southeast Asia, Micronesia, Malaysia, Australia, India, Melanesia and southern and eastern Africa. I didn’t know this was your website. To use as biochar, cogon grass leaves were collected from the same site at which the farm soil samples were collected. Loving your articles and videos on youtube. They are decocted and used to treat urinary tract infections, fevers, thirst etc. In these areas it was found that only very young shoots should be grazed or cut for hay. Cogon Grass BY Properties in Mississippi April 18, 2016. This page uses Google Analytics This federally regulated noxious weed grows rapidly, reducing forest productivity, harming wildlife habitat and ecosystems, and encroaching on pastures and hayfields. Cogon grass is a tall (2-5 ft.) perennial grass with bright yellowy-green foliage. Cogongrass control varies according to the age and rhizome mat density and depth. Cogongrass thrives on fine sand to heavy clay and does well on soils of low fertility. Cogon grass has extensively invaded disturbed areas such as roadsides and fallow pastures throughout north and central Florida but also relatively undisturbed sandhill and pine flatwoods. The flowers are used in the treatment of haemorrhages, wounds etc. This Asian grass entered the United States through the Port of Mobile in the early 1900’s and has spread into 73 Mississippi counties. Because of its dense, thick growth pattern, cogon grass degrades native gopher tortoise and indigo snake habitats in Florida.Cogon grass stands can create a severe fire hazard especially when mixed in with other volatile fuels such as young pine trees. Fires occurring in cogon grass infested woods have significantly increased native tree mortality. Cogon Grass is listed as one of the 10 worst weeds in the world. Mowing, burning or fertilization can also induce sporadic seedhead formation. The leaf blades have a midvein which is clearly offset to one side, and serrated (toothed) edges. It is a serious pest throughout the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world and is ranked as the seventh most troublesome weed worldwide [16]. Cogongrass was introduced into Florida in the 1930s and 1940s as a potential forage and for soil stabilization purposes. Often these conditions promote erosion and are unacceptable. Found throughout the southeastern U.S. and widely established in Florida. Cogongrass grows in loose to compact bunches, each ‘bunch’ containing several leaves arising from a central area along a rhizome. Rhizomes are much extended, equally noded and white. It is essential to cut to a depth of at least 6 inches to ensure that most, if not all the rhizomes have been cut. Cogongrass tends to grow in thick circular patches. At this stage, the leaves lack sharp points and razor-like leaf margins. When cogongrass is present, native species die out. Like most perennial grass weeds, cogon grass is easiest to tackle when the stand is young -- no more than one or two seasons old. UF Privacy Policy I. cylindrica is a perennial grass which varies in height (30-150 cm). Cogongrass first appeared in the area around Grand Bay, Alabama as an escape from Satsuma orange crate packing in 1912. The leaves appear light green, with older leaves becoming orange-brown in color. Commonly found in humid tropics but has spread to warm temperate zones worldwide. Based on the chemical and surface morphological properties analyses, cogon grass is a good alternative fibre resource especially for pulp and paper making industries. In this study, cogon grass was made as a material in paper making. Cogongrass is spreading rapidly across Alabama and the southeast, reducing forest ), is a very aggressive exotic perennial grass that entered Alabama in 1911 in packing material from Japan. The rhizomes of cogon grass are slender (1-1.5 mm diameter), have leafy bract like structures (4-5 cm in length) that are acuminate in the apex and quite sharp (Fig. Several broken fibre are also appear (Figure-2b) due to the pulping process and it could also reduce the quality and strength properties of hand sheet. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission • Farris Bryant Building This perennial grass from Southeast Asia was introduced into the U.S. in 1911 near Mobile, Alabama as packing material in a shipment of plants from Japan and into Mississippi as a forage crop before the 1920s. Leaves are flat, linear-lanceolate, 20 to 50 centimeters long, and 5 to 9 millimeters wide, stiff with scabrous margins. Reply. Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica). is one of the ten most aggressive weeds in the world due to its ability to effectively colonize, spread, and displace desirable vegetation ().Imperata cylindrica is a species of grass in the family Poaceae. Later it was introduced into Florida for forage and soil stabilization. The thermal properties of the biocomposite were reduced as the cogon grass fibres increase from 0 to 5%. Results from these practices are evident when observing cogongrass growing up to the edge of a cultivated field with no evidence of spread into the field itself. The long leaves feature a sharp terminal point and are embedded with silica crystals. Cogon grass stands also represent a significant fire hazard on public conservation lands and agricultural forests. Report fish kills, wildlife emergencies, sightings, etc. Florida Youth Conservation Centers Network, See a full list of our Social Media accounts, Off-center midrib on leaf blades, more apparent towards the tip of the blade. Older stands put down deeper roots and can put up more resistance to control methods. The flowers and the roots are antibacterial, diuretic, febrifuge, sialagogue, styptic and tonic. is a rhizomatous perennial grass that has infested ~200 million hectares of land in Asia and 500 million hectares worldwide [15]. Cogongrass is an invasive exotic grass found on public and private property, along roadways, in forests, and on farmland. In central Florida, monocultures of cogongrass have become established on hundreds of acres of reclaimed phosphate mining areas. Although the seeds can be carried long distances by wind and animals, the spread of cogongrass by seed is questionable and still under investigation. Cogon grass is considered to be one of the top 10 worst weeds in the world and has extensively invaded north and central Florida disturbed areas and pinelands. Cogongrass grows in loose to compact bunches, each 'bunch' containing several leaves arising from a central area along a rhizome. The leaves originate directly from ground level and range from one to four feet in length. It is a highly flammable fire-adapted species, and can spread rapidly by colonizing disturbed areas and encouraging more frequent wildfires. Cogon grass is a C 4 grass found mainly in tropical and subtropical areas with 75 to 500 cm of annual rainfall (Bryson, 1999). Imperata cylindrica is the most morphologically variable species in … In areas with killing frosts, the leaves will turn light brown during winter months and present a substantial fire hazard. Based on the chemical and surface morphological properties analyses, cogon grass is a good alternative fibre resource especially for … It has also been introduced to Latin America, the Caribbean, and the southeastern United States. Cogon Grass is listed as one of the 10 worst weeds in the world. Copyright 1999 - 2020 State of Florida. SEM images show that cogon grass fibres contained abundance and long fibres which provide good strength of the produced handsheet. Usually, landowners and farmers burn or spray herbicide at the land infected by the said plant. Eugene August 11, 2019 - 7:19 pm. Reply. The buyer assumed that their potential property would always be plagued by an impossible-to-kill noxious grass, and eventually ruined. Spikelets crowded, paired on unequal stalks, with each spikelet surrounded by long white hairs. Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) is an invasive, non-native grass that occurs in the Southeast region of the United States. Cogongrass is native to southeast Asia and infests nearly 500 million acres of plantation and agricultural land worldwide. With continued growth, the leafy bract like structure opens. SEM images of I. cylindrica hand sheet at … Cogon grass leaf blades can grow to 4 feet tall and can be easily identified by its leaf blades having a midvein noticeably off-center. The leaf margins are finely toothed, and the upper leaf surface is typically hairy near the base. The culms (above-ground stems) are short, erect and arise from rhizomes (underground stems). Kogon is an annual, erect, tufted grass, 30 to 80 centimeters high with a prominent underground stem. Imperata cylindrica ) is a species of perennial rhizomatous grass native to tropical and subtropical Asia, Micronesia, Melanesia, Australia, Africa, and southern Europe. Cogongrass is a perennial grass that varies greatly in appearance. Young infestations are usually easier to control than older well-established infestations. The use of herbicides for control of cogongrass began in the 1940s. Wildlife dependant on native species can no longer survive where cogongrass has taken over. In non-crop areas such as rights-of-way and fence rows, the so-called soil sterilants such as prometon (Pramitol), tebuthiuron (Spike), and imazapyr (Arsenal) will give excellent control; however, areas treated with these materials will be free of any vegetation for 6 months to a year. Perform additional tillage with a disk harrow or other appropriate implement every 6 to 8 … Key Identification Features of Cogongrass Flower/Seed head. For help with controlling cogongrass on your property, learn more about the Cogongrass Control Program offered by the Mississippi Forestry Commission. Cogon grass was then found to be unsuitable for forage and its ability to rapidly spread and displace desirable vegetation outweighed any soil erosion control considerations. SEM images show that cogon grass fibres contained abundance and long fibres which provide good strength of the produced handsheet. Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.) It costs millions each year to control in Florida¹. Crude protein of mature stands rarely attains the minimal 7% level needed to sustain cattle, making supplementation essential for livest… Seems we can at least redeem a little use from the weed. Cylindrical in shape; 2-8 inches in length (total flower or seed head) Silvery white in color Native tree seedlings and grasses are pushed out disrupting the entire ecosystem of the area. About Cogongrass. David The Good March 27, 2018 - 4:26 pm. This Asian grass entered the United States through the Port of Mobile in the early 1900’s and has spread into 73 Mississippi counties. Cogon grass forms dense stands resulting in the almost total displacement of native plants that are important to wildlife. Cogon Grass BY Properties in Mississippi. Listed as one of the world's ten worst weeds, cogongrass is an invasive perennial grass. Leaves: Leaf sheaths relatively short, glabrous or pubescent; ligule a membrane, 0.5-1 mm long. The nutrients in wheatgrass aid the body in getting rid of impurities and … This grass not only competes for food and water, it wins. Because of its rough edges and silica bodies found throughout the leaves, it is mostly unpalatable to native wildlife species. Figure-2. Cogongrass is an aggressive, rhizomatous, perennial grass that is distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. There are several layers of leafy bracts enclosing the … Cogongrass usually invades open areas like golf courses, roadsides, pastures, and natural areas where it displaces native plant species. The Mississippi Department of Agriculture and Commerce has assembled a task force of scientists, educators, government officials and agricultural leaders to recommend a comprehensive survey and control program for cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) before the invasive weed overtakes pastures, forestland, wildlife habitats and landscapes in the state. Cogongrass has been used in Southeast Asia as forage because it is the dominant vegetation on over 300 million acres. It can eliminate toxins. For about four weeks following a prescribed burn, crude protein of regrowth is comparable to bahiagrass. In Florida alone, it has spread to more than a million acres. In term of morphological, SEM shows good fibre adhesion between CGF and TPCS. Leaf blades erect, narrow and pubescent at base, flat and glabrous above, to 1.2 m (4 ft) tall and to 2 cm (< 1 in) wide, with whitish midvein noticeably off-center; blade margins scabrous, blade tips sharp pointed. Burning, cultivation, cover crops, and herbicides have been used with varying degrees of effectiveness. In Florida, cogongrass infests ditch banks, pastures, road sides/right-of-ways, golf courses, and forests. Cogon Grass: Imperata cylindrica Cogon grass leaf blades can grow to 4 feet tall and can be easily identified by its leaf blades having a midvein noticeably off-center. The initial tillage should begin in the spring (March through May) with an implement that inverts the soil to a depth of at least 6 inches. The rhizomes are tough, white, commonly 1 m long but can be considerably more, are extensively branched and … Seeds are extremely small and attached to a plume of long hairs. America, the leafy bract like structure opens with continued growth, the,! The course of a growing season, non-native grass that varies greatly in appearance ( Ladion, 2000.! Only very young shoots should be grazed or cut for hay million acres is listed as one of the.! 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